The Arab Empire

The second wave of Arab expansion under the Umayyads (662–750)
• After a bloody struggle with the Shiites, the Sunnite family of the Umayyads eventually gained the upper hand and assumed the Caliphate.

• The capital of the Umayyad Caliphs became Damascus, and Syria became the centre of Islamic power.

• The first Umayyad Caliph (13 in all) united the Arab tribes and established a centralized, bureaucratic state, with a regular army, chancery, postal system, and intelligence service. Arabic was made the official language. Civil society became Islamized.

• The office of the Caliph became hereditary (dynastic principle).

• The Umayyad Empire stretched from Spain to the Himalaya.

The second wave of Arab expansion

Hans Küng:
Religion and violence

Map of the Arab Empire

Paradigm shifts in Islam

The Qur’an

Global Ethic
and Religions

Prophetic Religions

The history

• Muhammad
• The message
• Umma, Caliph
• The Qur’an
• The rise
• Division
• The Arab Empire

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